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Alan Turing`s View of Human Nature1) The Computer View of Human Nature is that the human brain is is like a computer in how it processes inputs (sense observations) and generates outputs (behaviours)
Ex: An input would be like if you touch a hot stove element with your hand, then the resulting output would be removing your hand from the source of heat, the stove.2) There is a belief that very soon computers will be able to imitate the input-output process of the human brain, and thus they will have minds and be able to think.Ex. Cleverbot is a website where you can have a conversation with Cleverbot (a computer) and it learns from the conversations it has with humans, remembering words with its Al. So it picks up on slang, like YOLO, and opinions people have of things, like people do not like Justin Beiber.
Turing Test3) British philosopher, Alan Turing, suggested what is now called the Turing Test. This test is used to assess whether a computer`s mental ability is comparable to a human`s.4) Imagine there a a room that contains two keyboards and two printers. One printer and keyboard are connected to a computer somewhere outside the room. The other printer and keyboard are connected to a person somewhere outside the room. It is not known which keyboard and which printer are connected to the human and which are connected to the computer. You can type questions on the keyboards, which the computer or human will answer by printing their answers. Your job is to figure out which of the answers came from the human and which came from the computer.5) According to Turing, when a computer is so powerful that we cannot distinguish between the answers the human being gave and which ones the computer gave, then the computer has a mind.



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John Searle`s View on Human Nature6) Many philosophers disagreed with Turing`s view, amongst them is John Searle, who argued that a computer is nothing more than a machine that follows instructions in its program.7) Searle came up with the Turing Test in Chinese, where a human was given a book that have instructions on how to match the Chinese symbols with English symbols. The human would be given sheets of paper with Chinese symbols on them `questions` and they would hand back sheets of paper with `answers`. Even when the person gets good at it, they still do not understand a word of Chinese. Similarly, neither would a computer because all computers have is what he person had, a formal program that attaches no meaning, interpretation or content to any of the symbols.8) Seale argues that what a computer lacks is consciousness, which is essential to a human mind. A computer following a program does not have consciousness, and therefore, a computer cannot think like a human.
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Materialism and Dualism
9) Some philosophers believe the materialism fails to fully explain human consciousness, so many of them have returned to dualism.10) Philosopher, David Chalmers, concludes that consciousness is not a physical feature of the world. Instead, consciousness is a nonmaterial property of the world.



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