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Aristotle
Background:
-Born in 384 BC in Stagira, Greece
-At seventeen he began attending Plato's Academy, what we would call in modern times a university
-Aristotle taught at Plato's Academy until Plato died 20 years later
-Tutored Alexander the Great
-Died in a Macedonian fort of natural causes after fleeing Athens

Major Influence:
-Student of Plato, though their views on philosophy differed
-For example, Plato believed the soul was a separate part of the body so when we died our soul goes into a new body, meaning we could potentially remember our other pasts. However, Aristotle described the soul as only able to differentiate between a dead human and a living human. Therefore, it could not exist without the body and would not carry on.


Works:
-The Athenian Constitution
-Metaphysics
-On Sense and the Sensible
-Oragnon
-Nicomachean Ethics
-The Categories-description of particular things in terms of properties, states, etc.

Theories:
-Believed the forms of visible things exist in the visible things themselves, meaning the form was most important characteristic
-No separate world where these forms could exist such as Plato believed
-All things can be explained in four causes: material cause, formal cause, efficient cause, and final cause.
-Answered that the purpose of man is to find happiness. And the only way to find happiness is to live their lives with reason.
-Everything is a compound of either fire, water, earth, or air
-For something to carry out its virtue, it must be good in general and good at carrying out its purpose.
-Human Nature: There is only one world. The definition of a soul only shows the difference between a living human and a dead human. Therefore, the soul cannot exist without the body so there is solely the body. Also, since we strive for happiness, we must find it in this world alone and not in a separate one as Plato suggested.


Terms:
-Form: essential characteristics to describe an object
-Metaphysics: the branch of philosophy that focuses on first principals (mathematics)
-First Philosophy: metaphysics, mathematics
-Second Philosophy: the world around us
-Virtue: the ability to be reasonable in our actions, desires, and emotions
-Reason: why men strive for happiness


Values:
-Aristotle disagreed with Plato's view of true happiness, saying that happiness comes from reason. He set a basic outline for many different debates that continue to this day.
-Was the basis for study of astronomy and physics
-Changed the outlook for Western Philosophers
-Is credited with creating science as the collective enterprise it is today. His school, Lyceum, is considered the first science department, as its strength was biology. His work was accepted for over 2000 years.

In conclusion:
-Aristotle gave a framework for acquiring knowledge and putting it together. He empirically investigated objects in order to understand them. He inspired philosophers and scientists alike even two thousand years after his death. He learned from his teacher, Plato, yet often his opinions differed, disagreeing with Plato and discovering his own theories. Aristotle formed the specific science department, as well as contributed theories to popular topics today such as Human Nature and Metaphysics. He was one of the first philosophers and his works and ideas will inspire others for years to come.

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